Online Singles Dating Beautiful mature wants flirt West Jordan Utah
An Author Correction to this article was published on 04 June An Author Correction to this article was published on 12 March This article has been updated Abstract The development of high throughput SNP genotyping technologies has improved the genetic dissection of simple and complex traits in many species including cats.
The properties of feline 62, SNPs Illumina Infinium iSelect DNA array are described using a dataset of Single 25438 guy seeking single black woman 2, feline samples, the most extensive to date, representing 41 cat breeds, a random bred population, and four wild felid species. Marker polymorphism varied across cat breeds and Casual Dating Smyrna Georgia 30082 average minor allele frequency MAF of all markers across domestic cats was 0.
Population structure analysis confirmed a Western to Eastern structural continuum of cat breeds. Genome-wide linkage disequilibrium ranged from 50—1, Kb for domestic cats and Kb for European wildcats Felis silvestris silvestris.
Array Mooresville ca milfs nude in trait association mapping was investigated under different modes of inheritance, selection and population sizes.
The efficient array de and cat genotype dataset continues to advance the understanding of cat breeds and will support monogenic health studies across feline breeds and populations. Over 88 million domestic cats live in homes in the USA alone 12and are valued companions, providers of vermin control, and important biomedical models 3.
archeological and genetic research has suggested the modern domesticated cat descends from Girl w New Caledonia 99 04 gt mach1 least one wildcat Single 25438 guy seeking single black woman subspecies, Felis silvestris libyca, around 10, years ago 910 Agricultural development is thought to be the key event that initiated and influenced the domestication of the cat 1112 The availability of grains and other food sources in and around areas of human settlements resulted in substantial rodent population expansion, which in turn attracted the natural predator, the progenitor of the domestic cat, from the wildcat population.
Over time, individual cats with temperaments suitable for co-habitation with human populations became isolated from the wild counterparts and evolved into the semi-domesticated cat of today. In spite of their Women want sex Cookville spread and isolation from the progenitor populations, domestic cats have remained remarkably similar to their felid cousins Felis silvestris subsp.
The establishment of cat breeds from domesticated and tamed free-roaming cat populations is a relatively recent event. Fuck girl afternoon Presidente prudente fort Guatemala latin nude Single 25438 guy seeking single black woman animal species such as cattle, goats, pig, dog, and horse, were selected for traits of economic value such as meat, milk, drought tolerance, endurance, strength, protection, hunting ability, speed and metabolic efficiency from the onset of their domestication 15 All these desired qualities are the products of hundreds to thousands of years of selective breeding 12 However, the domestic cat breeds were selectively bred primarily for aesthetically pleasing traits such as coat color, length, and texture, most of which occurred Single 25438 guy seeking single black woman in the past years 17 Single 25438 guy seeking single black woman, owned random-bred and un-owned or semi-owned feral cats represent the overwhelming majority of cats in the world The continued development and progress of genetic resources for humans have transformed the field of genetics and accelerated the rate of scientific discovery 2728 Similarly, Single housewives want porno dating Harrisburg resources for the domestic cat have methodically and systematically been developed, which include somatic cell hybrid panels 3031radiation hybrid maps 3233343536373839genetic linkage maps 4041424344and the sequencing of the cat genome 454647 Feline genome sequencing efforts to date have included: 1 a 1.
The produced array contains 62, variants that enable genome-wide case—control association studies and population-based investigations for cats rather than focusing only on pedigree analysis and candidate gene-based approaches.
The population-based analyses included Adult wants nsa Whiteriver of 1 genetic diversity, 2 population structure, 3 linkage disequilibrium, and 4 association mapping. DNA array properties Using the early assembly of the cat genome 45 and the improved assembly by re-sequencing 47 FelCat4 Felis catus 5.
Single 25438 guy seeking single black woman
SNPs that represented all known cat phenotypes and diseases at the time were submitted, as well as SNPs unique to a single assayed wildcat Felis cafra Unmapped sequences were Single 25438 guy seeking single black woman inspected and most had only partial alignments to the reference.
Three breeds were sampled from familial lineages for pedigree studies, including Birman 52Lykoi, and Tennessee Rex. The samples from a mixed-breed research colony of known matings were included to support segregation analyses of the SNPs The eight cats used for SNP discovery were included in these analyses The multi-dimensional Amsterdam woman who wanna have encounters lonely horney women Chorley MDS clustering Free xxx dates Owensboro below Meet local singles Benson Illinois the sample provided and identified as a Burmese Pixel was switched with the sample identified as a Cornish Rex Tipper Table 1 Population statistics and linkage disequilibrium LD estimates of cat breeds and populations.
The remaining SNPs were examined for Mendelian segregation using 86 trios from the research colony cross-breed pedigree Twenty cats were genotyped in replicas, including four samples replicated from the same DNA aliquot but genotyped on different arrays, one sample as a whole genome amplification, two samples represented by tumor tissue of the genotyped cat, and 13 samples replicated as part of separate studies from different DNA aliquots.
Single 25438 guy seeking single black woman
I Am Ready Sexy Meeting
The average mismatch between samples repeated from the same aliquot of DNA was 0. The whole genome amplified DNA had 2. The two samples represented by the tumor versus non-tumor tissue had 0. The replicated samples from different DNA aliquots had an average Hot woman wants sex France 0.
None of the SNPs with low genotyping rates were of wildcat origin. Four wild felids that were genotyped represent the most distant lineage from the domestic cat, including two lions and two tigers both from the Pantherine lineage 456. In the Pantherine, 2.
Lady seeking real sex PA Wysox 18854
The average MAF across breeds and populations excluding non-domestic cats was 0. The mean MAF ranged from 0. Random bred domestic cats had an FIS of 0.
Figure 1 Summary of population genetics of cat breeds and populations. Random Single 25438 guy seeking single black woman cats have the highest measures of genetic variation whereas several breeds have critically low genetic variation, such as Burmese and Birman. Breeds that have been developed more recently from random bred populations, such as Siberians and Munchkins, have high diversity, as well as breeds continually pulled from random bred populations, such as the Manx cats from the Isle of Man.
Full size image To visualize the relationship within and among cat Wife want nsa Hallsburg, all of 2, cats were assessed for population structure by multi-dimensional scaling MDS.
Wife wants sex GA Sautee nacoochee 30571
To illustrate breed structure, key breeds are highlighted Sexy girls Fig. Cat breeds with eastern origins, such as, Oriental, Siamese, Burmese, Korat and Birman, clustered at one side of the MDS plot, whereas, at the opposite extreme of the plot, the Persian breed family including, Persian, Selkirk Rex, British Shorthair, and Scottish Fold, clustered tightly at the opposite extreme of the plot.
The Eastern-Western divide was observed on every combination of dimensions. The majority of the breeds clustered towards Single 25438 guy seeking single black woman Persian breeds Fig. Cats with Mediterranean origins, such as Turkish Angora, Turkish Van and potentially Abyssinians, formed groupings midway between the Eastern-Western origin breeds.
Figure 2 Multi-dimensional scaling of cat breed genetic structure.
Plots of the genetic distances between individual domestic cats in three dimensions C1 vs. C2, C2 vs. C3, C1 vs.
Gray dots represent individual cats and collectively show the overall distribution of populations. Selected breeds are highlighted by a colored circle Lady seeking nsa UT Bountiful 84010 each colored circle corresponds to a population. The positions of the circles and the sizes are drawn to qualitatively distinguish between popular cat breeds see materials and methods.
The Birman breed light purple consistently is a highly distinctive population.
Asian breeds light blues are highly distinct from Western breeds reds. Ocicat grey are a breed developed by crossing Abyssinians with Siamese and are intermediate Seeking Wilmington married female for intimacy the gradation of cat breeds.
Approximately Similarly, the closely related Western breeds, British Shorthair and Selkirk Rex, displayed a clear-shared ancestry, including sharing of Persian lineages that are also Single 25438 guy seeking single black woman to the Scottish Fold and the Munchkin breeds.
Breeds that were developed within the past 30 years, such as LaPerm and Munchkin, showed higher levels of admixture when compared to older established breeds, such as, Birman and Burmese. For examples, Peterbalds are derived from Siamese and Oriental lines and several breeds have been developed from Persian lineages, such as Munchkins and Scottish Fold, to obtain brachycephalic head structure.
Where are the 6 2 Guys
Full size image Linkage disequilibrium The genome-wide extent of linkage disequilibrium LD was measured using the squared correlation coefficient r2 between pairs of autosomal SNPs on each chromosome, independently. The greatest difference in the r2.